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  • image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
    Authors: Davide Clemente; Leonardo Davì; Ettore De Monte;

    To verify the usefulness of visual stimulation in CBT techniques or systematic desensitization and flooding, through the study of neurocognitive responses (ERPs) to specific and repetitive phobic or neutral stimuli, in patients with specific phobias. The study involved 2 groups, both composed of 20 subjects: an experimental group and a control group. Slideshows consist of randomized phobic images, whose characteristics are personalized for the specific phobia, and neutral images identical for all subjects. The ERPs recorded during visual stimulation were analyzed, distinguishing the potentials generated by phobic and neutral stimulations. The ERPs present typical waves (P1, P2, P3a, and P3b) that represent the cortical processing of the image. The study shows, in phobic subjects with specific phobic stimuli, an increase in P2 component amplitude due to greater activation of cortical networks by emotional response and the increase in amplitude of P3b component compared with the control group, probably in relation to looking for specific details of the phobic image. It is interesting to note that P3b component tends to regress during repetitive stimulation. The study showed that, through digital stimulation, phobic patients become accustomed to the presentation of phobic stimuli with an average decrease of 12–13% in P2 and an average reduction of 25% in N2. This result allows the hypothesis that this stimulation is useful to replace stimulation in vivo, or as a preparation for it. The variation of the potential evoked during the stimulation can help the therapist modulate the stimulation itself. The authors also propose to continue the development of this research also using the development of augmented reality (VR).

    image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Journal of Technolog...arrow_drop_down
    image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
    Journal of Technology in Behavioral Science
    Article . 2019 . Peer-reviewed
    License: Springer TDM
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      image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Journal of Technolog...arrow_drop_down
      image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
      Journal of Technology in Behavioral Science
      Article . 2019 . Peer-reviewed
      License: Springer TDM
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  • Authors: B I, Bauer; C L, Geletnecky; R, Lorenz; W, Seeger; +2 Authors
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  • Authors: V, Claassen; T A, Boschman; K M, Dhasmana; F C, Hillen; +2 Authors
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  • Authors: Z, Adamczewska-Goncerzewicz; M, Wender; E, Sroczyński; D, Talkowska; +2 Authors
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  • image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
    Authors: Nuzhath F, Tajuddin; Luisa A, Orrico; Jason L, Eriksen; Mary J, Druse;

    Abstract Previously, results of studies from our laboratory have shown that the offspring of ethanol-fed female rats have a significant decrease in serotonin (5-HT) neurons and glia that contain S100B, an essential trophic factor for the development of 5-HT neurons. The deficiency of S100B-immunopositive glia was detected during the vulnerable period in 5-HT neuron development and in brain areas proximal to these neurons. The reductions of both 5-HT neurons and S100B-positive glia were prevented by maternal treatment with a 5-HT 1A agonist (i.e., ipsapirone or buspirone). In the current study, we investigated whether the offspring of ethanol-fed rats had a general decrease in the density of glial cells in the brain areas that contain 5-HT neurons, and we determined whether these changes were prevented by maternal treatment with ipsapirone between gestational days (GDs) 13 and 20. We estimated the density of vimentin-positive glia of the midline raphe glial structure (MRGS) at GD 20 and postnatal day (PND) 5 and of glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP)–positive astrocytes proximal to the dorsal and median raphe at PNDs 5 and 19. The results of this study provide evidence that in utero ethanol exposure is associated with a reduced density of GFAP-immunopositive astrocytes proximal to the dorsal and median raphe. Maternal ipsapirone treatment significantly increased astroglial density in the dorsal raphe at PNDs 5 and 19 and in the median raphe at PND 5, such that it either prevented (dorsal raphe, PNDs 5 and 19) or blunted (median raphe, PND 5) the effects of ethanol.

    image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Alcoholarrow_drop_down
    image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
    Alcohol
    Article . 2003 . Peer-reviewed
    License: Elsevier TDM
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    Alcohol
    Article . 2003
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      image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Alcoholarrow_drop_down
      image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
      Alcohol
      Article . 2003 . Peer-reviewed
      License: Elsevier TDM
      Data sources: Crossref
      Alcohol
      Article . 2003
  • image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
    Authors: K, Imai; H, Otsubo; E, Sell; I, Mohamed; +3 Authors

    Background – A child whose left temporal lobe contained mesial, anterior and basal structures but lacked superio-lateral cortex had intractable epilepsy secondary to a porencephalic cyst. Magnetoencephalography (MEG) shows equivalent current dipoles (ECDs) as dipole modeling for temporal lobe epilepsy rather than in an exact location. Aim – We hypothesized that the magnetic fields generated by the epileptic discharges in mesio-basal temporal areas could be detected by MEG without interference from the superio-lateral temporal cortices. Methods – We analyzed MEG spikes using single dipole analysis and synthetic aperture magnetometry (SAM), and compared with EEG spike topography. Results – Two MEG ECDs corresponding to T3 spikes localized to the anterior mesio-basal temporal region with vertical orientation. Sixteen MEG ECDs corresponding to T5 spikes localized to the middle to posterior mesio-basal temporal region with vertical orientation. SAM revealed maximum current density at hippocampus and anterior fusiform gyrus for T3 spikes, and at posterior hippocampus and fusiform gyrus for T5 spikes. Conclusion – Vertically oriented ECDs were obtained without superio-lateral temporal cortices because of temporo-parieto-occipital porencephalic cyst. The absence of superio-lateral temporal cortices, prominent temporal EEG spikes, less prominent MEG spikes, and mesio-basal SAM spikes indicated that the vertically oriented ECDs were projected directly from the mesio-basal temporal region.

    image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Acta Neurologica Sca...arrow_drop_down
    image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
    Acta Neurologica Scandinavica
    Article . 2007 . Peer-reviewed
    License: Wiley TDM
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      image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Acta Neurologica Sca...arrow_drop_down
      image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
      Acta Neurologica Scandinavica
      Article . 2007 . Peer-reviewed
      License: Wiley TDM
      Data sources: Crossref
  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Packiasamy A R, Juliet; Deepak, Balasubramaniam; Naveen, Balasubramaniam; Chinnakannu, Panneerselvam;

    A wide range of morphological and biochemical changes occur in the central nervous system with increasing age. L-carnitine, a naturally occurring compound, plays a vital role in fatty acid transport across the mitochondrial membrane. L-carnitine (300 mg/kg body wt/day) was administered intraperitoneally to young and old male Wistar rats for 7, 14, and 21 days. Carnitine, dopamine, epinephrine, and serotonin levels were assayed in discrete regions of the brain. Carnitine supplementation increased the levels of dopamine, epinephrine, and serotonin in the experimental animals in our study. Response to carnitine supplementation varied among the brain regions that have been studied. The regions rich in cholinergic neurons such as the cortex, hippocampus, and striatum showed more response after 21 days of carnitine treatment. The results of the present study suggest the role of L-carnitine as a neuromodulator and antiaging medication.

    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ The Journals of Gero...arrow_drop_down
    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    The Journals of Gerontology Series A
    Article . 2003 . Peer-reviewed
    Data sources: Crossref
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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ The Journals of Gero...arrow_drop_down
      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
      The Journals of Gerontology Series A
      Article . 2003 . Peer-reviewed
      Data sources: Crossref
  • Authors: K A, Frey;

    Important advances in PET and SPECT imaging of neurochemistry have permitted direct investigation of neurologic diseases and syndromes, including many associated with seizures and epilepsy. Insights into issues of development and evolution of epileptogenic changes, mechanisms of seizure propagation, and mechanisms underlying therapeutic interventions will be increasingly gained from direct clinical study, rather than from experimental animal models, with the increasing application of this imaging technology.

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  • Authors: G, KOCH;
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  • Authors: Patrick, Aldrin-Kirk; Tomas, Björklund;

    Chemogenetics is the process of genetically expressing a macromolecule receptor capable of modulating the activity of the cell in response to selective chemical ligand. This chapter will cover the chemogenetic technologies that are available to date, focusing on the commonly available engineered or otherwise modified ligand-gated ion channels and G-protein-coupled receptors in the context of neuromodulation. First, we will give a brief overview of each chemogenetic approach as well as in vitro/in vivo applications, then we will list their strengths and weaknesses. Finally, we will provide tips for ligand application in each case.Each technology has specific limitations that make them more or less suitable for different applications in neuroscience although we will focus mainly on the most commonly used and versatile family named designer receptors exclusively activated by designer drugs or DREADDs. We here describe the most common cases where these can be implemented and provide tips on how and where these technologies can be applied in the field of neuroscience.

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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: M, Devilat; L, Germain;
    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Revista Chilena de P...arrow_drop_down
    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Revista Chilena de P...arrow_drop_down
      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Rasim Somer Diler;
    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Bulletin of Clinical...arrow_drop_down
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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Bulletin of Clinical...arrow_drop_down
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    Authors: Thirunavukkarasu, Sundaram; Gwang-Woo, Jeong; Tae-Hoon, Kim; Gwang-Won, Kim; +2 Authors

    Objective: To assess the dynamic activations of the key brain areas associated with the time-course of the sexual arousal evoked by visual sexual stimuli in healthy male subjects. Materials and Methods: Fourteen right-handed heterosexual male volunteers participated in this study. Alternatively combined rest period and erotic video visual stimulation were used according to the standard block design. In order to illustrate and quantify the spatiotemporal activation patterns of the key brain regions, the activation period was divided into three different stages as the EARLY, MID and LATE stages. Results: For the group result (p < 0.05), when comparing the MID stage with the EARLY stage, a significant increase of the brain activation was observed in the areas that included the inferior frontal gyrus, the supplementary motor area, the hippocampus, the head of the caudate nucleus, the midbrain, the superior occipital gyrus and the fusiform gyrus. At the same time, when comparing the EARLY stage with the MID stage, the putamen, the globus pallidus, the pons, the thalamus, the hypothalamus, the lingual gyrus and the cuneus yielded significantly increased activations. When comparing the LATE stage with the MID stage, all the above mentioned brain regions showed elevated activations except the hippocampus. Conclusion: Our results illustrate the spatiotemporal activation patterns of the key brain regions across the three stages of visual sexual arousal.

    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Europe PubMed Centra...arrow_drop_down
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    Europe PubMed Central
    Article . 2010
    Data sources: PubMed Central
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    Korean Journal of Radiology
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    License: CC BY NC
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    Korean Journal of Radiology
    Article . 2010 . Peer-reviewed
    License: CC BY NC
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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Europe PubMed Centra...arrow_drop_down
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      Europe PubMed Central
      Article . 2010
      Data sources: PubMed Central
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      Korean Journal of Radiology
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      Korean Journal of Radiology
      Article . 2010 . Peer-reviewed
      License: CC BY NC
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  • Authors: C-C, Wu; C-S, Lin; G-J, Wu; Y-H, Lin; +3 Authors

    Background and objective To evaluate and compare the effect of two clinically available central nervous system stimulants, namely doxapram and aminophylline on arousal from sevoflurane anaesthesia and bispectral index. Methods This randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, prospective study was conducted in 90 adult females, ASA I-II, scheduled for elective lower abdominal surgeries at Taipei Medical University Hospital. At 5 min before the completion of surgery, under sevoflurane anaesthesia, patients were divided into three groups to receive doxapram 1 mg kg(-1), aminophylline 2 mg kg(-1) or saline placebo intravenous. Standard vital signs, end-tidal CO(2), end-expiratory sevoflurane concentration, bispectral index and neuromuscular blockade were measured plus clinical parameters of recovery from general anaesthesia. Results Compared with the control group, patients receiving doxapram or aminophylline showed a similarly faster recovery from sevoflurane anaesthesia correlated with increase in bispectral index. Conclusion Intravenous administration of doxapram 1 mg kg(-1) or aminophylline 2 mg kg(-1) hastened the early recovery from sevoflurane anaesthesia. The arousal effect of aminophylline and doxapram appears to be similar.

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  • Authors: B, Dreher; L J, Cottee;

    1. Receptive-field properties of single neurons in cat's cortical area 18 were studied before and after partial bilateral lesions of area 17. 2. The majority of cells recorded from animals with intact visual cortex exhibited orientation selectivity, directional selectivity, and could be independently activated through either eye. All cells responded well to moving targets and nearly all of them exhibited broadly tuned preferences with respect to speed of the target. Over 45% of cells responded optimally or exclusively at very fast (above 50 degrees/s) speeds. 3. The majority of neurons recorded from animals with intact visual cortex responded weakly but clearly to appropriately oriented localized stationary stimuli flashed on and off. About one-third of the cells responded with mixed on-off discharges from all over their receptive field. In the receptive fields of 10% of cells, separate on- and off-discharge regions could be revealed. In the receptive fields of the remaining cells, only on- or only off-discharge regions could be revealed. 4. The majority of neurons recorded after ablation of area 17 were orientation selective; 50% of the cells were also direction selective. All neurons responded well to moving targets; about 65% of them responded optimally or exclusively at very fast target speeds. 5. Destruction of the dorsolateral part of contralaterial area 17 and most of contralateral area 18 caused significant reduction in proportion of cells in area 18 which could be activated through either eye. 6. The majority of neurons recorded after ablation responded to appropriately oriented localized stationary stimuli flashed on and off. Cells with mixed on-off discharge regions all over the receptive field with separate on- and off-discharge regions and with only on- or only off-discharge regions were found. 7. It is concluded that the processing of afferent visual information in area 18 is, to a great extent, independent of the information carried to this area by associational fibers from cells of area 17.

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  • image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
    Authors: Jeffery L, Peyton; W Thomas, Bass; Bonnie L, Burke; L Matthew, Frank;

    Recent reports suggest that learning is enhanced by emotion, spontaneity, and play. The mechanisms of this enhancement are unclear and might involve increased cortical stimulation by the limbic system. Since neuronal activity is tightly coupled to changes in cerebral blood flow and volume, the demonstration of increased cortical blood volume during playful versus routine motor and somatosensory activity would imply enhanced neuronal activity and provide insight into the complex interaction between play and learning. Near-infrared spectroscopy was used to detect changes in cortical blood volume during performance of (1) rudimentary visual, motor, and speech tasks; (2) integration of the tasks in a familiar routine manner; and (3) integration of the tasks in a novel, spontaneous, playful manner. No significant differences in cortical blood volume were found during the performance of the individual rudimentary tasks and their routine integration. However, the novel integration activity was associated with a significantly greater increase in frontal lobe oxyhemoglobin, deoxyhemoglobin, and total hemoglobin, as well as parietal lobe total hemoglobin. This small pilot study provides a limited measure of physiologic support for a relationship between play and learning. ( J Child Neurol 2005;20:817—821).

    image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Journal of Child Neu...arrow_drop_down
    image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
    Journal of Child Neurology
    Article . 2005 . Peer-reviewed
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      image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Journal of Child Neu...arrow_drop_down
      image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
      Journal of Child Neurology
      Article . 2005 . Peer-reviewed
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  • Authors: Daniel S. F. Magalhães; Fádua H. Ribeiro; Fabricio O Lima; Rolando L. Serra; +2 Authors

    The magnetic resonance angiography (MRA) can be used to examine blood vessels in key areas of the body, including the brain. In the MRA, a powerful magnetic field, radio waves and a computer produce the detailed images. Physicians use the procedure in brain images mainly to detect atherosclerosis disease in the carotid artery of the neck, which may limit blood flow to the brain and cause a stroke and identify a small aneurysm or arteriovenous malformation inside the brain. Multi-autostereoscopic displays provide multiple views of the same scene, rather than just two, as in autostereoscopic systems. Each view is visible from a different range of positions in front of the display. This allows the viewer to move left-right in front of the display and see the correct view from any position. The use of 3D imaging in the medical field has proven to be a benefit to doctors when diagnosing patients. For different medical domains a stereoscopic display could be advantageous in terms of a better spatial understanding of anatomical structures, better perception of ambiguous anatomical structures, better performance of tasks that require high level of dexterity, increased learning performance, and improved communication with patients or between doctors. In this work we describe a multi-autostereoscopic system and how to produce 3D MRA images to be displayed with it. We show results of brain MR angiography images discussing, how a 3D visualization can help physicians to a better diagnosis.

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  • image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
    Authors: Luc, Leybaert; Marijke, De Bock; Marijke, Van Moorhem; Elke, Decrock; +1 Authors

    AbstractGlucose transport over the blood–brain barrier (BBB) is a nonrate‐limiting step and has therefore received little attention as a possible adjustment point within the transport reaction cascade from blood glucose to brain cell glycolysis. Considerations of the normal working point of facilitated BBB glucose shuttling via the GLUT‐1 protein indicate that the transport is working at about one‐third of Tmax under basal conditions. Substitution of Tmax estimates indicates that the transport is then just enough to keep up with glucose consumption, maintaining the steady state. After brain activation, glucose transport has to be stimulated, and this can be accomplished by increasing the driving force or changing the Tmax and/or Kt parameters of BBB transport. The first possibility involves a decrease of brain interstitial glucose with subsequent flow stimulation according to the law of mass action (LMA), whereas the second possibility involves signaling from activated neurons to the BBB, a regulation loop that we propose to be called “neurobarrier coupling” (NBC). Theoretical analysis of the LMA effect and comparison with data on glucose dynamics during brain activation suggest that this factor alone only covers about half of the stimulation necessary to bring glucose delivery into line with the elevated glucose consumption during activation. Adjusting glucose entry with demand thus probably involves both LMA and NBC effects, depending on the degree of brain activation. Further work is needed to demonstrate NBC effects following physiological brain activation in vivo and to identify the signals that lead to NBC in in vitro experiments. © 2007 Wiley‐Liss, Inc.

    image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Journal of Neuroscie...arrow_drop_down
    image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
    Journal of Neuroscience Research
    Article . 2007 . Peer-reviewed
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      image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Journal of Neuroscie...arrow_drop_down
      image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
      Journal of Neuroscience Research
      Article . 2007 . Peer-reviewed
      License: Wiley Online Library User Agreement
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  • image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
    image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Journal of Neuroscie...arrow_drop_down
    image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
    Journal of Neuroscience
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      image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao